Kyle Cudworth, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago, explains the difference between open star clusters and globulars, which contain hundreds of thousands of stars and are more centrally concentrated than the open clusters.
Kristin Litzelman, Integrated Specialist in Human Development and Family Studies at UW-Extension, defines the work of informal caregivers, discusses why caregiving is important and shares results of her research of spousal support of cancer survivors.
Caleb Slemmons, Field Technician at NEON, Inc., presents information about an ongoing project led by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Chicago Botanical Garden where groups and individuals have been collecting data about seasonal changes in plants since 2007.
John P. White, Conservation Biologist at the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, discusses the threat of extinction facing bats that hibernate in caves and mines in Wisconsin. White suggests ways citizen scientists can help to monitor and protect the health of the bats.
Kimberly Cassida, Forage Extension Specialist at Michigan State University, discusses how to use cover crops as forage crops for animals, worms and insects. Cassida provides a list of plants that traditionally were used as forages which now are being used as cover crops.
Laura Van Eerd, Associate Professor of Soil Fertility and Cover Crops at the University of Guelph, discusses the use of nitrogen as a nutrient source for cover crops. Van Eerd explains the nitrogen cycle and how to minimize nitrogen loss while maximizing nitrogen in the soil.
Jerry Hatfield, Laboratory Director and Plant Physiologist at the USDA Agricultural Research Service, explains why soil health is important, how soil degrades, how to enhance soil, how cover crops fit into the picture and the future demands of agriculture.
Tom Kaspar, Plant Physiologist at the USDA Agricultural Research Service, presents the nitrate levels in the Raccoon River in Des Moines, Iowa. Kaspar discusses the reasons for high levels of nitrogen in the water and suggests ways to lower the levels.
Eileen Kladivko, Professor of Agronomy at Purdue University, explains how to integrate cover crops to maintain nutrient levels from the time the crops have been harvested until the next planting season. Kladivko also discusses how cover crops protect the soil and reduce erosion by wind and water.
Christy Tremonti, Assistant Professor in the Department of Astronomy at UW-Madison, discusses where chemical elements come from and how they are distributed throughout the universe. Tremonti explains how life is influenced by common chemical elements in the universe.